The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug schools. It comprises of several distinct lineages, all of which trace their origins to Padmasambhava.
‘Nyingma’ literally means “ancient,” and was founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit to Tibetan. The Tibetan script and grammar was actually created for this endeavour. The lineage is now centered in Kham in eastern Tibet.
Nyingmapas are categorised into Red and White Sanghas. Red Sanghas are celibate, monastic practitioners, whereas White Sanghas are non-celibate practitioners.